ثورة الريف الصامتة في الصين

حين اختتم المؤتمر الشعبي القومي للصين اجتماعه السنوي مؤخراً، صَوّتَ أعضاؤه على تقديس حماية حقوق الإنسان والملكية الخاصة بوضعها ضمن مواد الدستور. أما التغييرات الكبرى الأخرى التي يبدو أنها تطرأ الآن على استراتيجيات التنمية في الصين، فقد اجتذبت انتباهاً أقل من ذلك إلى حد كبير.

بعد عام واحد من تولي قيادة الصين الحالية للسلطة انتقدت " السعي الحثيث الذي لم يكن له هدف سوى زيادة نمو الناتج الإجمالي القومي " خلال العقد السابق. كما كشفت عن مدخل جديد إلى التحديث والتطوير يتسم بالتوازن، ومراعاة الجوانب الإنسانية، ومناصرة البيئة. وليس من الصعب هنا أن نفهم دوافع التغيير الذي طرأ على الأولويات ـ وميل المراقبين من الخارج إلى التغافل عنه.

لقد انبهر العالم بمعجزة الصين الاقتصادية، لكن اهتمامه يتدنى إلى حد كبير حين يتعلق الأمر بالتكاليف التي اقترنت بمعدل النمو السنوي الذي حققته الدولة في الخمسة والعشرين عاماً الماضية، والذي بلغ 8 ـ 9% سنوياً. فعلى سبيل المثال، يقترب استهلاك الطاقة عن كل وحدة من وحدات الناتج الصناعي الصيني من ثلاثة أمثال المتوسط العالمي. وفي كثير من الأماكن تعرضت البيئة إلى دمار بلغ حداً غير قابل للإصلاح.

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