Le nouveau modèle économique de la Chine

La réussite de la Chine depuis le début de sa transition vers une économie de marché repose sur des stratégies et politiques capables de s’adapter : des problèmes sont résolus et d’autres apparaissent, appelant l’élaboration de nouvelles politiques et stratégies. Ce processus inclut l’ innovation sociale . La Chine a reconnu qu’elle ne pouvait pas simplement importer les modèles d’institutions économiques qui ont fonctionné dans d’autres pays ; du moins, ce qui a réussi partout ailleurs doit être adapté aux difficultés uniques rencontrées en Chine.

Aujourd’hui, ce pays envisage un « nouveau modèle économique ». Bien entendu, l’ancien modèle a été un succès résonant, à l’origine de près de 10 % de la croissance annuelle durant trente ans et sortant des centaines de millions de Chinois de la pauvreté. Les changements se voient dans les statistiques, mais encore plus sur les visages des populations locales.

Je me suis récemment rendu dans un village Dong perdu dans les montagnes de Quizho – l’une des provinces les plus pauvres de Chine –, à des kilomètres de la route la plus proche. Le village a pourtant l’électricité, c’est-à-dire non seulement la télévision, mais aussi l’Internet. Si certains revenus augmentent grâce aux versements de proches ayant migré vers les villes côtières, les fermiers sont eux aussi plus aisés, grâce à de nouvelles cultures et à de meilleures graines : le gouvernement vend à crédit des graines de haute qualité à taux garanti de germination.

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