L’origine américaine de la réussite de la Chine

NEW DELHI – La stratégie des États-Unis en Asie a cherché pendant plus d’un siècle un équilibre des pouvoirs pour empêcher la montée d’une puissance dominant les autres. Pourtant les États-Unis, selon sa Stratégie nationale de sécurité officielle, se sont aussi commis à faciliter « l’avènement d’une Chine pacifique et prospère qui coopère également avec nous pour régler des problèmes communs et partager les intérêts communs ». D’une certaine manière, la politique des États-Unis à l’égard de l’Asie serait donc contradictoire.

En fait, les États-Unis ont joué un rôle prépondérant dans l’essor de la Chine. Ainsi, plutôt que d’imposer des sanctions commerciales à la Chine après le massacre de la place Tiananmen en 1989, les États-Unis ont plutôt opté pour une politique visant l’adhésion du pays aux institutions internationales. Il est même notoire que la politique étrangère des États-Unis a été favorable à la Chine bien longtemps avant cela.

En 1905, le président Théodore Roosevelt, qui a accueilli la conférence de paix à Portsmouth au New Hampshire, après la guerre russo-japonaise, a défendu le retour de la Mandchourie à la Chine du règne des empereurs mandchous et prônait un équilibre des pouvoirs en Asie de l’Est. La guerre a fini par faire des États-Unis un participant à part entière des affaires de la Chine.

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