Les centres financiers – une obsession chinoise

D’après tout le tapage qui entoure le développement de la zone côtière de Tianjin près de Beijing, il semblerait qu’un « centre financier » de plus soit en train de naître en Chine. Il y a plusieurs années, les banquiers et les investisseurs dans le monde entier se demandaient si Shanghai, qui nourrissait de semblables ambitions, finirait vraiment par remplacer Hong Kong. Aujourd’hui, Tianjin au nord et Shanghai au sud se font concurrence, ce qui suscite encore plus de spéculations.

Autrefois, on ne créait pas de « centres financiers » : c’étaient simplement de grandes métropoles où étaient conclues d’importantes transactions. Londres ou New York ont été considérées comme des centres financiers une fois qu’elles ont eu fait leurs preuves dans ce secteur.

Les autorités chinoises ne sont apparemment pas conscientes du fait que beaucoup de grandes villes n’ont pas cette chance. Il n’existe aucune théorie – économique ou autre – selon laquelle une ville baptisée « centre financier » serait plus belle ou intéressante que les autres. Dans ces conditions, pourquoi la Chine fait-elle de la création de ses propres centres financiers internationaux un objectif national essentiel ? En a-t-elle vraiment besoin ? Est-ce important pour le monde de la finance internationale ? Est-ce nécessaire parce que des fonctions financières peuvent déterminer le destin d’une grande métropole ?

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