La transformación del sistema económico de China

Por lo general hay consenso en que los impresionantes logros económicos de China en las últimas tres décadas son en gran medida resultado de la reforma radical de su sistema económico. Mientras antes de que ésta comenzara apenas existía la propiedad privada de empresas, hoy las empresas privadas generan dan cuenta del 60% de la producción total.

Sin embargo, la propiedad es sólo una dimensión de un sistema económico. El sistema económico chino ha cambiado de maneras igual de radicales en otros ámbitos también. Se ha descentralizado la toma de decisiones en torno al consumo y la producción, recayendo hoy de manera importante en los hogares y las empresas, respectivamente; los incentivos económicos, los mercados, la competencia y la internacionalización han sustituido significativamente la planificación centralizada y autoritaria, los procesos administrativos, el monopolio y la autarquía. En términos generales, el periodo de reformas en China ha sido una notable ilustración contemporánea de que dar libertad a la iniciativa individual tiende a impulsar el desarrollo económico.

Entonces, ¿cómo habría que caracterizar la economía china? Algunos observadores describen el actual sistema económico chino como “capitalismo de estado”; otros (incluidos los gobernantes chinos) lo llaman "socialismo de mercado". Ambos rótulos se prestan a confusiones. Una razón es el predominio de las firmas privadas en el lado de la producción. Otro es el hecho de que el "socialismo" por lo general no se basa en una fuerte competencia y en incentivos, que son los factores dominantes en la China de hoy.

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