中国转型中的经济体制

人们普遍认为,中国过去三十年中令人印象深刻的经济成就大部分是其经济体制剧烈改革的结果。私有企业在改革之初几乎没有,但是现在私营企业占生产总量的大约60%。

但是,所有制仅仅是经济体制中的一个方面。中国的经济体制在其他方面也发生了巨变。有关消费和生产的决策已经在很大程度上相应下放到了家庭和企业;经济激励、市场、竞争以及国际化已经在很大程度上取代了命令、行政手续、垄断以及自给自足。释放个人能动性有助于激发经济发展是一个历史经验。总体而言,中国的改革阶段是对这一历史经验生动的当代体现。

那么,又该如何概括当今中国的经济呢?某些观察家将中国目前的经济体制描述成为“国家资本主义”;某些(包括中国的统治者们)称之为“市场社会主义”。这两个标签都有所偏颇。其中一个原因是私有企业统治了生产方面。另外,“社会主义”通常并不依赖于强大的经济激励手段以及竞争,而这两点是当今中国占据统治地位的经济因素。

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