中国的消费者共产主义

自八十年代中期以来,中国发生了巨变。变化不仅仅是增加了让长久未来的访客不知所措的高速公路、广告牌以及摩天大楼。甚至去一下书店就足以让在几十年前了解中国的人震惊。那时,非马列主义理论的著作会超过马列主义者是不可想象的。一家话剧演出公司甚至被允许上演乔治·奥维尔著名的反专制主义讽喻剧<<动物庄园>>。社会主义阵营的读者以往只是通过地下版本知道这部作品。

当然,变化还要深刻。在八十年代,城市马路上没有乞丐,而主要的社会分歧则只是将一小部分在政治上有后台、享受特权生活方式的人与平民百姓分离开来。如今,乞丐与蓬勃兴起的中产阶级并存。以前在上海,星期六晚上无事可做。现在,美国时代周刊把上海称为地球上“最为热闹非凡”的地方。

当我在二十年前准备中国之行的时候,乔治·奥维尔的黑色名著<<1984年>>看起来就是一个观察这个“人民共和国”的有用的镜片。当时中国的专制还没有严重到使其成为极度独裁的“大哥”国家的化身,但与之也有相似之处,如对各种“资产阶级”享受和娱乐活动的轻视和定期的坚持声称二加二等于五之类的宣传运动。

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