Китайский вызов Латинской Америке

Отношения между Китаем, Латинской Америкой и странами Карибского бассейна довольно парадоксальны. В то время как за последние несколько лет укрепилась двусторонняя торговля и улучшились дипломатические отношения, между этими двумя регионами продолжает сохраняться нехватка осведомленности, а в отдельных случаях даже появляются напряженные отношения. Практически ни один важный проект между Китаем и Латинской Америкой не был инициирован частным, общественным или научным секторами, а двусторонние учреждения все еще не отражают вес экономической динамики.

Этот парадокс имеет два аспекта. Первый заключается в том, что многие китайские предприятия – особенно в секторах основных товаров, вроде сои, мяса, железа, стали, меди и нефти – начали свою деятельность в Латинской Америке либо с прямых инвестиций, либо с покупки продукции и/или предприятий. В меньшей степени латиноамериканские предприятия - такие как Gruma, Modelo, Embraer, Marco Polo и Embraco - успешно обосновались в Китае.

Но даже в этом случае Латинская Америка остается вторичной экономической системой и коммерческим партнером для Китая. В 2006 году Латинская Америка и страны Карибского бассейна составляли 3,7% китайского экспорта и 4,3% его импорта. Но двусторонняя торговля росла внушительными темпами, и с 1995 по 2006 годы китайский экспорт и импорт выросли на 24,8% и 23,9% соответственно.

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