Chinas Kampfansage an Lateinamerika

Die Beziehungen zwischen China und Lateinamerika sowie dem karibischen Raum sind paradox. Obwohl der bilaterale Handel in den letzten Jahren anstieg und die diplomatischen Beziehungen gefestigt wurden, bleibt zwischen den beiden Regionen ein Verständnisdefizit bestehen und in einigen Fällen nehmen die Spannungen zu. Kaum ein Großprojekt zwischen China und Lateinamerika wurde vom privaten, öffentlichen oder wissenschaftlichen Sektor lanciert und die bilateralen Institutionen entsprechen noch nicht dem Ausmaß der wirtschaftlichen Dynamik.

Dieses Paradoxon beruht auf zwei Aspekten. Erstens haben viele chinesische Unternehmen – vor allem aus dem Grundnahrungsmittel- und Rohstoffsektor wie Soja, Fleisch, Eisen, Stahl, Kupfer und Öl - entweder durch Direktinvestitionen oder durch den Kauf von Produkten und/oder Firmen Aktivitäten in Lateinamerika entwickelt. In geringerem Ausmaß haben lateinamerikanische Unternehmen - wie beispielsweise Gruma, Modelo, Embraer, Marco Polo und Embraco – erfolgreich auf dem chinesischen Markt Fuß gefasst.

Dennoch bleibt Lateinamerika für China ein zweitrangiger Wirtschafts- und Handelspartner. Der Anteil der Exporte nach Lateinamerika und in den karibischen Raum betrug im Jahr 2006 3,7 % und die Importe aus diesen Regionen 4,3 %. Der bilaterale Handel jedoch verzeichnete beeindruckende Zuwachsraten. Zwischen 1995 und 2006 stiegen die chinesischen Exporte um 24, 8 % und die Importe um 23,9 %.

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