Le défi chinois pour l’Amérique latine

Les relations entre la Chine, l’Amérique latine et les Caraïbes sont paradoxales. Tandis que le commerce bilatéral a augmenté, et que les relations diplomatiques se sont consolidées au cours des dernières années, une certaine ignorance persiste entre les deux régions et dans certains cas, les tensions s’intensifient. Presque aucun grand projet entre la Chine et l’Amérique latine n’a été initié par le secteur public, privé ou éducatif, et les institutions bilatérales ne reflètent pas encore le poids des dynamiques économiques.

Ce paradoxe revêt deux aspects. Tout d’abord, de nombreuses entreprises chinoises, particulièrement dans des secteurs de biens de base comme le soja, la viande, le fer, l’acier, le cuivre et le pétrole, ont lancé des activités en Amérique latine, soit par le biais d’investissements directs, soit en achetant des produits et/ou des entreprises. À un moindre degré, des entreprises latino-américaines, Gruma, Modelo, Embraer, Marco Polo et Embraco, ont réussi à s’introduire avec succès en Chine.

Malgré cela, l’Amérique latine reste un partenaire économique et commercial secondaire pour la Chine. En 2006, L’Amérique latine et les Caraïbes comptaient pour 3,7 % des exportations chinoises et 4,3 % de ses importations. Le commerce bilatéral pourtant crû à une vitesse impressionnante, avec les exportations et les importations chinoises en augmentation de 24,8 % et 23,9 % respectivement, entre 1995 et 2006.

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