Révolution bancaire en Chine

Un des plus grands défis que la Chine doit relever avant l’entrée en vigueur du traité de l’OMC en 2007 est de préparer le système bancaire du pays à la privatisation et à la concurrence avec les banques étrangères. Le gouvernement a créé une nouvelle administration, la société centrale d’investissement Hujin, pour gérer et recapitaliser les grandes banques d’État avant qu’elles ne soient vendues. Hujin a déjà injecté 60 milliards USD des réserves de changes chinoises dans la Banque de Chine, la Banque de construction chinoise et la Banque industrielle et commerciale. La Banque de l’agriculture nécessitera également de nouveaux capitaux bien que le gouvernement ne prépare pas encore sa privatisation.

Les politiques de sauvetage du gouvernement semblent fonctionner. Ces deux derniers mois, la Bank of America a annoncé des investissements de 2,5 milliards USD pour une prise de participation de 9 % et la holding Temasek, basée à Singapour, a réglé 1,4 milliards USD pour une prise de participation de 5,1 % dans la Banque de construction chinoise. La Royal Bank of Scotland dirige un groupe d’investisseurs qui va investir 3,1 milliards USD dans la Banque de Chine, tandis que Goldman Sachs et l’allemand Allianz sont prêts à signer un accord pour acquérir 9,9 % de la Banque industrielle et commerciale pour un montant similaire.

Le gouvernement espère que ces investissements étrangers préparent le terrain pour la mise sur le marché public de ces banques sur les places boursières de Hong Kong et d’ailleurs en 2006, tandis que les banques étrangères investissent dans l’espoir de pénétrer le marché chinois, qui est énorme. Les trois grandes banques d’État possèdent des réseaux étendus de succursales et emploient des centaines de milliers de personnes. Les banques étrangères ne peuvent espérer mettre en place une telle couverture sans un partenaire local. Elles se concentreront dans un premier temps sur les secteurs des cartes de crédit et pourraient par la suite développer d’autres partenariats. HSBC a également annoncé un investissement majeur dans les assurances Ping An qui pourrait préparer le terrain pour des expériences avec Bancassurance à l’avenir. 

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