中国的银行改革

2007年世贸条约生效之前中国必须面对的最大挑战之一是为国内银行系统的民营化和与外国银行竞争做好准备。政府已经建立了一个新的机构,中央汇金投资公司,在大型国有银行被售之前进行管理和资产重组。汇金已经将600亿美元外汇储备注入中国银行、中国建设银行、以及工商银行。农业银行也将需要新的资金,尽管政府还没有开始为其民营化做准备。

政府的救援政策似乎正在起作用。上两个月内,美国银行宣布斥资25亿美元购买中国建设银行9%的股份,新加坡控股公司淡马锡则宣布计划斥资14亿美元买进中国建设银行5.1%的股份。苏格兰皇家银行正率领一个投资集团打算向中国银行追加31亿美元的投资,同时高盛和德国安联也准备签约投资类似数额的资金收购工商银行9.9%的股份。

政府希望通过这些外资为2006年银行在香港和其他地方的证券交易所上市做好准备,然而外国银行投资的目的却是要打入巨大的中国市场。三大国有银行拥有广泛的支行网络,雇佣了数十万员工。没有本地合作伙伴,外国银行永远也别想实现如此全面的覆盖率。外国银行开始会主要集中在信用卡等领域,不过也可以建立其他的合资企业。汇丰银行也宣布向平安保险注入巨额投资,可能以次促进未来银行保险的实践。

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