Chine - l’effet boomerang de la loi anti-sécession

Le Congrès populaire national chinois entérine toujours d’office les projets de loi. Mais la législation controversée visant à mettre hors-la-loi la sécession de Taiwan est bien loin de la routine. Elle a fait monter les enjeux pour les indépendantistes de l’île, et augmenté le risque de conflit militaire.

La formulation imprécise de la loi – qui vise peut-être à amadouer les critiques venues de l’étranger – augmente paradoxalement le danger que la Chine et les Etats-Unis se trouvent entraînés par mégarde et malgré eux dans un conflit militaire qui aurait pu être évité. En ne définissant pas de limites claires pour Taiwan, la loi permet des erreurs d’appréciation et d’interprétation importantes.

Malgré plusieurs semaines de pressions intenses de la part des Etats-Unis pour l’assouplissement – voire le retrait – du projet de loi, les dirigeants chinois se sont pratiquement contentés de réaffirmer que les mesures “non-pacifiques” (c’est-à-dire militaire) ne seraient prises qu’en dernier ressort, ce que l’on supposait déjà. Le gouvernement Bush n’a pas mâché ses mots, en demandant à Beijing de revoir sa position quant à l’adoption de la loi, intervenant ainsi de façon assez directe dans une affaire que la Chine considère interne.

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