China y la OMC: asuntos pendientes

El tortuoso camino hacia la membresía de China en la Organización Mundial de Comercio (OMC) está llegando a su fin. Sin embargo, antes de que China sea aceptada, las condiciones finales bajo las que ingresará a la organización deben ser negociadas con un grupo de miembros que actúan en nombre de la OMC y quedar plasmadas en un acuerdo formal, el Protocolo de Adhesión. Existen cuestiones legales importantes que se han hecho a un lado y que ahora deben abordarse.

Cuando China ingrese a la OMC, se comprometerá (como todos los demás miembros) a seguir políticas y prácticas que han sido acordadas por la comunidad internacional de naciones comerciantes y que están expresadas en el Acuerdo General sobre Aranceles y Comercio (GATT) y otros tratados multilaterales. Las largas negociaciones que llevó a cabo China con los EU y la Unión Europea sobre su membresía en la OMC se centraron principalmente en problemas económicos espinosos, como la reducción de aranceles, la eliminación de cuotas a las exportaciones hacia China, la apertura de su mercado a importaciones clave que hasta ahora se han visto excluidas o limitadas, y el permiso para que la inversión extranjera pueda participar en industrias como la de las telecomunicaciones.

Estas negociaciones bilaterales también habrán de beneficiar a otros miembros de la OMC, ya que su membresía en la organización obliga a China a tratar a todos los miembros en forma igual. Sin embargo, se ha prestado poca atención a otros asuntos que también afectarán a todos los miembros de la OMC, específicamente, a las medidas que China tendrá que tomar para elevar los niveles de legalidad que le permitan alcanzar los estándares dictados por el GATT.

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