China's solar energy panel Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

Revolusi Energi Terbarukan di Tiongkok

BEIJING – Pada awal tahun 2017, Tiongkok mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan menginvestasikan $360 miliar pada sektor energi terbarukan pada tahun 2020 dan membatalkan rencana untuk membangun 85 pembangkit listrik tenaga batu bara. Pada bulan Maret, pemerintahan Tiongkok melaporkan bahwa negara tersebut telah melampaui target resmi dalam bidang efisiensi energi, intensitas karbon, dan jumlah sumber energi ramah lingkungan. Dan pada bulan kemarin, badan yang berwenang untuk mengatur energi di Tiongkok, yaitu Administrasi Energi Nasional, mencanangkan sejumlah upaya baru untuk mengurangi ketergantungan energi Tiongkok terhadap batu bara.

Beberapa hal diatas hanyalah sejumlah indikator terkini yang menunjukkan bahwa Tiongkok adalah pusat transformasi energi global, yang didorong oleh perubahan teknologi dan turunnya biaya energi terbarukan. Namun Tiongkok tidak hanya melakukan investasi di sektor energi terbarukan dan mengurangi jumlah penggunaan batu bara. Tiongkok juga menyumbang peningkatan jumlah permintaan energi global, yang berarti bahwa kian bergesernya pertumbuhan ekonomi negara tersebut ke arah pertumbuhan yang didorong oleh jasa dan juga konsumsi akan mengubah sektor sumber daya diseluruh dunia.       

Pada saat yang sama, berbagai faktor lain menurunkan konsumsi sumber daya dalam skala global, yang antara lain disebabkan oleh meningkatnya efisiensi energi di perumahan, bangunan industri dan komersil, serta menurunnya permintaan energi untuk transportasi yang disebabkan oleh perkembangan kendaraan otonom dan berbagi tumpangan (ride sharing).    

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