Las reformas estancadas de China

BEIJING – El programa de reformas de China ha alcanzado un impasse. Conflictos fundamentales de intereses y mecanismos sutiles de resistencia bloquean su progreso. Hasta que no se eliminen estas barreras, existen pocas esperanzas de que la economía en desaceleración de China -que creció el 7,4% en 2014, su tasa más baja en casi 25 años- pueda esperar que la reforma le dé el impulso que necesita.

Los líderes chinos son bien conscientes de lo difícil que puede resultar implementar reformas drásticas. Cuando Deng Xiaoping lanzó su programa radical de "reformas y apertura" en 1978, enfrentó una oposición feroz -principalmente de ideólogos apasionados y reaccionarios revolucionarios-. De la misma manera que la condición y la fortalezade Deng le permitieron enfrentar a sus opositores y mantener la modernización económica de China en curso, el liderazgo resuelto del presidente Xi Jinping puede superar los intereses particulares e implementar las reformas necesarias.

Por supuesto, reconciliar la desalineación fundamental de intereses en China no será tarea fácil -entre otras cosas porque los grupos de intereses no discutirán reformas, mucho menos les ofrecerán resistencia, de una manera abierta y transparente-. Sólo se han hecho pequeñas concesiones para reducir la intervención del gobierno, afectando poderes que o son irrelevantes o, en realidad, nunca existieron.

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