China and US US State Dept/Flickr

قوة الصين الاقتصادية المشكوك فيها

طوكيو ــ مؤخرا، أعلن البنك الدولي أن حجم اقتصاد الصين سوف يتجاوز مثيله في الولايات المتحدة هذا العام، قياساً على تعادل القوة الشرائية. ولكن هذا بعيد كل البعد عن كونه تصويراً شاملاً لموقف الصين الاقتصادي العالمي.

فرغم أن تعادل القوة الشرائية من الممكن أن يخدم بعض الأغراض في مقارنة مستويات الرفاهة بين البلدان، فإنه يتأثر بشكل كبير بحجم السكان. فالهند، صاحبة عاشر أضخم اقتصاد على مستوى العالم قياساً على سعر صرف الدولار الأميركي والروبية الهندية في السوق، هي ثالث أكبر اقتصاد قياساً على تعادل القوة الشرائية. وعلاوة على ذلك فإن موارد القوة، مثل تكلفة النفط المستورد أو محرك طائرة مقاتلة متطورة، يمكن الحكم عليها بشكل أفضل وفقاً لأسعار صرف العملات التي لابد أن تستخدم لسدادها.

لا شك أن الحجم الإجمالي يشكل جانباً مهماً من جوانب القوة الاقتصادية. والصين لديها سوق جذابة وهي أكبر شريك تجاري لعدد كبير من الدول ــ وهو مصدر مهم للنفوذ لا يتردد قادة الصين في استخدامه.

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