Hambantota airport Lukruwan Wanniarachchi/Stringer

中国的债务陷阱外交

新德里—有一件事是中国领导人真正擅长的,那就是用经济工具推进中国的战略利益。通过“一带一路”计划,中国支持了占据战略要冲的发展中国家的基建项目,手段一般是给予这些国家的政府巨额贷款。于是这些国家纷纷跳入了债务陷阱,导致它们极易受到中国的影响。

当然,贷款给基建项目天然不是坏事。但中国所支持的项目通常不是为了支持本地经济,而是为了便利中国获得自然资源,或为低成本的劣质中国商品打开市场。在许多例子中,中国甚至输出自己的建筑工人,从而让本地就业创造降到最低。

其中几个已经完成的项目目前处于亏损状态。比如,2013年开张的位于汉班托塔(Hambantota)附近斯里兰卡的拉贾帕克萨国际机场(Mattala Rajapaksa)堪称世界最空机场。类似地,汉班托塔的拉贾帕克萨港(Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port)也基本处于闲置状态,耗资数十亿美元建造的巴基斯坦瓜达尔港也是如此。但是,对中国来说,这些项目的经营状态正是其所想要的:中国的攻击潜艇已经两次停靠斯里兰卡港口,两艘中国战舰最近驶入瓜达尔港执行港口安全保障任务。

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