Shanghai skyline at night

El nuevo plan quinquenal de China

CAMBRIDGE – Estuve en Beijing el mes pasado, cuando el gobierno chino publicó un resumen preliminar de su 13.º Plan Quinquenal. Es un documento importante para comprender el rumbo que tomará China entre 2016 y 2020. Aun así, los planes quinquenales chinos ya no son lo que eran.

La economía china ya no es el sistema de control y propiedad estatal que encontré en mi primera visita al país, hace 30 años. En aquel tiempo, no había empresas privadas y nadie que no fuera el gobierno o una empresa estatal podía contratar empleados legalmente. Hoy solo el 20% de los empleados chinos trabajan para empresas estatales. El resto de la economía china es un sistema dinámico, descentralizado y de propiedad privada. Multinacionales estadounidenses y otras empresas extranjeras son parte importante del paisaje económico.

De modo que el plan quinquenal ya no es un programa de expansión industrial detallado, sino una descripción de lo que la dirigencia china espera que logre el país, dentro de las pautas generales dadas por el gobierno. La meta es una mejora global del nivel de vida (conseguir un crecimiento moderadamente firme, elevar la incidencia del consumo en el PIB y mejorar la calidad del aire y del agua) mediante una combinación de políticas monetarias y fiscales al estilo occidental, desarrollo de infraestructuras con financiación estatal y cambios a la regulación medioambiental y otras normas.

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