Shanghai skyline at night

中国的最新五年规划

坎布里奇—上个月我在北京,中国政府发布了其第13个五年规划的预览纲要。这是一份重要的文件,可以帮助我们理解2016—2020年中国的走向。但中国的五年规划已不再是从前的五年规划。

中国经济已不再是我30多年前第一次访问这里时的国家所有和国家管理制度。当时没有民营企业,只有政府或国有企业才能合法雇用员工。如今,中国只有20%的工人为国有企业工作。其余部分为充满活力的分散的民营企业。美国跨国公司和其他外国企业也是中国经济图景中的重要部分。

因此,五年规划已不再是工业扩张的详细蓝图;相反,它说明了中国领导层希望在政府总体指导下实现什么目标。其目的是改善总体生活水平——实现略强的增长,提高消费占GDP之比,并改善空气和水质量——其手段是西方式货币和财政政策、国家融资的基础设施开发以及环境和其他监管改革相结合。

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