China government meeting Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa/Flickr

Chine et gouvernance mondiale

MADRID – Il est raisonnable d’affirmer que l’évolution géostratégique la plus conséquente des vingt dernières années réside dans la montée en puissance de la Chine. Or, l’Occident a jusqu’à présent échoué à accorder à la Chine – sans parler des autres économies émergentes majeures – le degré d’influence qu’elle mérite aujourd’hui au sein des structures de la gouvernance mondiale. Il se pourrait toutefois que cette situation soit sur le point de changer.

En l’état actuel des choses, la Chine s’appuie sur des accords bilatéraux pour renforcer son influence au sein des pays d’Asie, d’Afrique et d’Amérique latine. Forte de 3 800 milliards $ de réserves de change, la Chine y apporte des investissements en infrastructure, en échange de matières premières, et est ainsi devenue le plus grand fournisseur mondial de financements pour les pays en voie de développement, la Banque chinoise de développement accordant aujourd’hui davantage de prêts que la Banque mondiale.

Néanmoins, dans la mesure où ces accords bilatéraux sont exécutés par des sociétés détenues par l’État, ils échouent bien souvent à adhérer aux bonnes pratiques internationales. C’est la raison pour laquelle les pays occidentaux ont encouragé la Chine à s’orienter vers des processus multilatéraux répondant aux normes internationales, tout en œuvrant davantage à la fourniture de biens publics mondiaux. Le président américain Barack Obama est en effet allé jusqu’à reprocher à la Chine de faire « cavalier seul » dans la mesure où celle-ci manque aux responsabilités que beaucoup attendraient d’une grande puissance mondiale.

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