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La carte chinoise au Moyen-Orient

PARIS – La liste des fléaux qui frappent le Moyen-Orient s’allonge. Au Yémen, où la guerre civile fait rage, s’est déclarée une incontrôlable épidémie de choléra. À Jérusalem, la violence religieuse s’intensifie, tandis qu’en Irak et en Syrie, les affrontements interconfessionnels ne montrent aucun signe d’apaisement. De façon plus inquiétante, l’antagonisme entre l’Arabie saoudite et l’Iran est monté d’un cran et augure qu’une confrontation directe entre les deux principales puissances du chiisme et du sunnisme n’est plus inenvisageable.

Au moment où la région aurait le plus grand besoin de la main ferme d’une autorité internationale, il n’est plus aucun acteur traditionnel qui soit assez fort ou assez engagé pour agir efficacement. C’est un nouveau cadre diplomatique qu’il faudrait au Moyen-Orient, qui soit solidement soutenu par un nouveau médiateur : la Chine.

En exportant le terrorisme et l’extrémisme d’inspiration religieuse, le Moyen-Orient est devenu « global », au sens le plus négatif du terme. Mais si l’on s’est beaucoup préoccupé de ce que l’ancien ministre des Finances français Michel Sapin avait qualifié de « mondialisation malheureuse » – à savoir le chômage et les inégalités de revenus –, trop peu de choses ont été faites pour contenir la propagation de la violence extrémiste et pour s’attaquer à ses causes. De nombreuses formules diplomatiques ont été tentées, mais aucun progrès n’est en vue.

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