La manœuvre de réforme de Xi

HONG KONG – Lorsque Deng Xiaoping a lancé les réformes de marché en Chine il y a 35 ans, lui et le Parti communiste chinois prenaient le plus grand risque politique depuis la fondation de la République populaire en 1949. Lorsque le président Xi Jinping a dévoilé son propre programme de réforme l'an dernier lors de la troisième session plénière du 18e congrès du PCC, il prenait un risque tout aussi important. Sa stratégie sera-t-elle payante ?

En 1979, Deng était dans une situation difficile. Il savait que le passage d’un socialisme égalitaire planifié vers un capitalisme de marché pouvait déstabiliser le règne du PCC, et que l'accumulation inégale de la richesse à court terme pouvait provoquer une importante fracture sociale et politique. Pourtant, alors que la Chine était au bord de l'effondrement économique et social à la suite du chaos de la décennie de la Révolution culturelle, il devait prendre des mesures – et il y avait peu de solutions de rechange disponibles, voire pas du tout.

Les réformes se sont avérées extrêmement bénéfiques : plus de trois décennies de croissance économique à deux chiffres ont suivi leur mise en œuvre. En outre, elles ont permis au PCC de conserver son emprise sur le pouvoir. Mais certaines personnes et régions en ont bénéficié beaucoup plus rapidement que d'autres – un problème qui a été plus difficile à traiter que Deng avait prévu.

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