AFP/Stringer

Equidad y libre comercio

CAMBRIDGE – El sistema de comercio mundial se enfrenta a un importante punto de inflexión al final de este año, uno que se pospuso cuando China se unió a la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC) hace casi 15 años. Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea deben decidir si van a empezar a negociar con China reconociendo a este país como una “economía de mercado” en lo que se refiere a sus políticas comerciales. Lamentablemente, incluso mientras se intensifica la batalla en el transcurso de este año, los términos de la opción garantizan que no se hará nada por abordar los defectos más profundos del régimen de comercio mundial.

El acuerdo de adhesión de China a la OMC, firmado en diciembre de 2001, permitió que los socios comerciales de este país se relacionen con China en su calidad de “economía no de mercado” (NME) por un período de hasta 15 años. El estatus de NME hizo que sea mucho más fácil para los países importadores imponer aranceles especiales a las exportaciones chinas, en la forma de derechos antidumping. De manera particular, estos países estaban facultados para utilizar los costos de producción de países más caros en lugar de los verdaderos costos chinos, aumentando de esta manera tanto las probabilidades de un hallazgo de dumping, como el margen estimado de dumping.

Hoy en día, si bien muchos países, como ser Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Corea del Sur, ya han otorgado a China el estatus de economía de mercado, las dos mayores economías del mundo, EE.UU. y la UE, no lo hicieron. Sin embargo, independientemente de si lo hacen o no, las medidas antidumping son poco adecuadas para abordar preocupaciones con respecto al comercio injusto – esto no se debe a que dichas preocupaciones no estén bien fundamentadas, sino a que las mismas van mucho más allá del dumping. Las medidas antidumping facilitan el peor tipo de proteccionismo, y al mismo tiempo no hacen nada a favor de los países que necesitan un espacio normativo legítimo.

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