AFP/Stringer

公平和自由贸易

坎布里奇—今年年底,世界贸易体系将面临重要转折点,这个转折点因为近15年前中国加入世贸组织而延迟到现在。美国和欧盟必须决定是否在贸易政策中开始将中国作为“市场经济”对待。不幸的是,虽然这场战争随着今年的深入而逐渐升级,但选择的条件决定了不会对全球贸易机制更深层次的缺陷做出任何修补。

2001年12月签署的中国加入世贸组织协定允许贸易伙伴在最长15年的时间里将中国视为“非市场经济”(NME)。非市场经济地位让进口国更容易以反倾销税的形式对中国出口商品施加特别关税。特别是,它们可以用比较昂贵的国家的生产成本作为中国真正成本的标准,这样就提高了发现倾销的可能性和倾销利润估计。

如今,尽管阿根廷、巴西、智利和韩国等许多国家已经给予中国市场经济地位,但世界最大的两个经济体——美国和欧盟——并未这样做。但是,不论它们是否这样做,反倾销手段都不适合作为解决不公平贸易问题的手段——不是因为这些问题没有真凭实据,而是因为它们远远超过了倾销范畴。反倾销给最恶劣的保护主义打开了方便之门,同时对需要合法政策空间的国家没有任何益处。

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