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中国在超越GDP增长的目标

上海—众所周知,中国能保持高速的增长长达30年,地方各级政府是个重要的推手。虽然不适当的干预总是不可避免,但大多数情况下地方政府扮演了维护市场和保护企业家精神的角色,这包括推动基础设施的投资、降低官僚主义作风、创造良好的投资环境和为经济增长提供短期的支持性优惠政策等。

现在试想一下,如果地方政府不再像过去那么关注增长数字,整个经济将会有什么有趣的变化?至少在2010年之前,这个问题多半也是假想的。事实上,在过去20年来,即便大多数经济学家乐意批评地方政府太专注于当地的经济发展事务,也不会想到他们假如减少乃至放弃对经济发展的关注,将会如何影响中国经济增长的前景。

经济学家和政治学家们都认为,地方政府的所作所为可以用中国共产党保留的以政绩导向的官员晋升规则来解释。在实行经济改革以后,经济的增长,或GDP,是度量和比较官员政绩的唯一尺子。为了获得领导的赏识并争取晋升机会,地方的官员为经济增长而竞赛,乃是典型的标尺竞争。

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