Bloomberg/ Getty Images

中国好经济

纽约—几十年老牛拉破车式的经济增长,再加上2008年金融危机,促使世界大部分地区经济思想发生了剧烈转变。有人说要将资源从投资转向消费,从重工业转向“服务”,从私人部门转向公共部门。但令我震惊的是这些观点只专注于改善经济内部的产出组合,丝毫不关注劳动力。

中国的这一现象特别明显。从某些指标看,中国目前已是世界第一大经济体。毫无疑问,中国必须抵制继续在笨重的轧钢厂和空置的公寓楼上进行投资。但是,与此同时,中国必须关注工人,提升他们的工作体验——从亚当·斯密到艾尔弗雷德·马歇尔的大批经济学家无不把这作为经济思想的核心。

并非所有人都同意这一点。在工作体验这个问题上,许多人——特别是欧洲大陆人——认为最优配置(带来运转良好的机构)如能加上教育投资便已足够。毕竟,意大利人、德国人和法国人工作时间相对较短,但工作努力且出色,因此拥有很高的单位时间生产率和工资——比美国和英国都要高。

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