Man installing photovoltaic panels

La revolución de las energías renovables

SÍDNEY – En Estados Unidos y Europa, se piensa sobre todo en los beneficios medioambientales de las energías renovables. La energía eólica y solar puede reducir la necesidad de quemar combustibles fósiles y así ayudar a mitigar el cambio climático.

Pero China y la India ven las energías renovables de un modo bien distinto. La transición relativamente veloz de ambos países hacia el abandono de los combustibles fósiles no obedece tanto a temor por el cambio climático sino al beneficio económico atribuido a las fuentes renovables.

Las ventajas económicas de la energía renovable pueden ser atractivas para economías avanzadas como Alemania o Japón (dos países que cada vez usan menos combustibles fósiles), pero para los gigantes industriales emergentes son irrebatibles. Para la India y China, seguir una trayectoria económica basada en los combustibles fósiles podría provocar una catástrofe, porque el intento de asegurarse una provisión suficiente para sus inmensas poblaciones supone un aumento de tensiones geopolíticas. Aparte de una mayor seguridad energética, una economía descarbonizada fomentaría la industria manufacturera interna y mejoraría la calidad del medioambiente local, por ejemplo al reducir el esmog urbano.

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