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China’s Incomplete Growth Strategy

While China's leaders should be applauded for their commitment to implementing painful structural reforms, they are ignoring the present. In fact, China faces two separate challenges: the long-term issue of a declining potential growth rate and the immediate problem of below-potential actual growth.

BEIJING – China’s economic growth has been slowing for six years – far longer than expected. Eager to stem the slide, Chinese government officials and economists have desperately sought a clear explanation pointing toward an effective policy response. And, last November, they officially placed the blame on long-term supply-side shortcomings, which they pledged to address with far-reaching structural reforms.

But, although Chinese officials should be applauded for their commitment to implementing painful – and badly needed – structural reforms, the supply-side focus largely ignores the present. China faces two separate challenges: the long-term issue of a declining potential growth rate and the immediate problem of below-potential actual growth.

Among the long-term factors undermining potential growth are diminishing returns to scale, a widening income gap, and a narrowing scope for technological catch-up through imitation. Moreover, even as the country’s demographic dividend dissolves, its carrying capacity (the size of the population the environment can sustain) is being exhausted – a situation that high levels of pollution are certainly not helping. Finally, and most important, the country is suffering from inadequate progress on market-orientated reform.

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