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Неполные контракты Китая

ГОНКОНГ – В этом году Нобелевскую премию по экономике получили Оливер Харт из Гарварда и Бенгт Хольмстрём из Массачусетского технологического института за свою новаторскую работу по экономике прав собственности и контрактов. В момент, когда Китай пытается совершить нелегкий переход от системы неполных контрактов к сильному режиму имущественных прав, значение этих работ в реальном мире очевидно как никогда.

Ни в каком контракте нельзя учесть все возможные случаи. Следовательно, вместо этого в контрактах должно оговариваться распределение прав «контроля» – кто при каких обстоятельствах может принимать решения. Для централизованной плановой экономики, пытающейся передать больше полномочий рынку, такие контракты очень важны – по крайней мере на первых порах.

Это не ускользнуло от внимания китайских реформаторов. С середины 1980-х до начала 1990-х они внедрили «систему ответственности сельских домохозяйств» и «систему контрактной ответственности предприятий» для государственных предприятий. Эти системы фактически делегировали больше прав по принятию решений, а также некоторую часть прибыли, крестьянам и рабочим, с тем чтобы у них был более сильный стимул работать эффективнее в государственных коммунах и фирмах.

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