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中国的不完全契约

香港—今年诺贝尔经济学奖被授予哈佛大学的奥利佛·哈特(Oliver Hart)和麻省理工学院的本特·霍尔姆斯特罗姆(Bengt Holmström),以表彰他们在产权和契约经济学方面的开创性工作。如今,中国正在尝试艰难的转型——从不完全契约系统转向更成熟完善的产权体制与市场,哈特和霍尔斯特罗姆的理论贡献在真实世界中的重要性从未如此清晰。

不论什么契约,都无法具体规定一切可能性。因此,契约必须转而规定“剩余控制权及剩余收益权”的配置——谁可以在怎样的环境下做决定及谁可以获得相应的收益。对于一个尝试逐渐增加市场力量的中央计划经济而言,这样的具体但不完全的契约是无比宝贵的——至少在一开始是这样。

中国改革者并没有忽视不完全契约的重要性。20世纪80年代中期到90年代初,他们引入了“农村家庭联产承包责任制”和国企的“企业承包责任制”。这些制度本质上是将更多的决策权利和一定的利润以不完全契约的方式委托给了农民和工人,因此给了他们更大的激励在集体所有制的土地上和国有制企业中更加高效地工作。

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