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laurent_ Wu JunjieChina News ServiceVCG via Getty Images_china pollution Wu Junjie/China News Service/VCG via Getty Images

打破神话的中国奇迹

巴黎—四十年前的1978年12月29日,中共十一届三中全会发布公报,人类历史上最伟大的经济增长实验就此拉开序幕。中国领导人用中共内部心照不宣的用词,传递了邓小平的愿望,宣布了一系列前所未有的“现代化”,将一个世界最不发达国家变成了一个领先的经济强国。

2014年,中国超越美国成为世界最大经济体(基于购买力平价)。其人均GDP在1980年比美国低四十倍,现已增长了58倍,只比美国低3.4倍(据IMF数据)。事实上,15%的人类经历了四十年、每年10%的平均收入增长。

但中国令人瞩目的崛起也打碎了三个关于经济增长的影响的神话。首先是增长降低不平等性、增加幸福感。1955年,经济学家西蒙·库兹涅茨(Simon Kuznets)提出了一个假说,认为收入不平等性将随着国家的经济发展,呈现出急剧升高然后下降的走势——即倒U型或钟型走势。从中国自1978年以来的经济增长速度看,它的经验是对库兹涅茨假说最有力的拒绝。

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