Wind farm energy China environment Asian Development Bank/Flickr

La revolución de la energía verde de China

SYDNEY – China produce gran parte de su energía eléctrica mediante la quema de combustibles fósiles, como hicieron todas las potencias económicas en crecimiento desde la Revolución Industrial. Sin embargo, centrarse en este único factor conlleva el riesgo de ignorar una tendencia relevante. El sistema chino de producción de energía se está haciendo ecológico –mucho más rápido que cualquier otro sistema de tamaño comparable en el planeta.

Esta tendencia se observa en tres áreas. La primera es la producción de electricidad. De acuerdo con datos emitidos por el Consejo de Electricidad de China, la cantidad de energía producida en el país a partir de combustibles fósiles en 2014 disminuyó en un 0.7% anualizado, lo que representa la primera caída de que se tenga memoria en tiempos recientes. Mientras tanto, la producción de energía a partir de combustibles no fósiles, aumentó en 19%.

Cabe señalar que la energía nuclear representó un papel menor en este cambio. La electricidad producida con fuentes estrictamente ecológicas –hidráulica, eólica y solar– aumentó 20%;  entre ellas, la solar fue la fuente que tuvo un mayor incremento, y llegó a un sorprendente 175%. La energía solar también superó la nuclear en términos de nueva energía producida, puesto que el año pasado contribuyó con 17.43 terawatts-hora, en comparación con los 14.70 terawatts-hora de la energía producida a partir de fuentes nucleares. Además, por tercer año consecutivo, China produjo más electricidad eólica que energía nuclear. Es por ello que el argumento de que China dependerá de plantas nucleares para producir energía sin uso de carbón parece estar poco fundado.

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