Wind farm energy China environment Asian Development Bank/Flickr

La Rivoluzione Energetica “Verde” della Cina

SYDNEY – La Cina produce la maggior parte dell’energia elettrica attraverso combustibili fossili, come ha fatto ogni potenza economica emergente a partire dalla Rivoluzione Industriale. Ma concentrare l’attenzione su questo singolo fatto rischia di sottovalutare una tendenza rilevante. Il sistema cinese per la produzione energetica sta diventando “verde” – molto più rapidamente di qualsiasi altro sistema sul pianeta di dimensioni analoghe.

Questa tendenza è visibile in tre aree. La prima riguarda la produzione di elettricità. Secondo i dati diffusi dal China Electricity Council, la quantità di energia che il paese ha generato da combustibili fossili nel 2014 è diminuita dello 0,7% rispetto all’anno precedente, il primo decremento che si ricordi di recente. Nel frattempo, la produzione di energia da fonti energetiche non-fossili è aumentata del 19%.

Sorprendentemente, l’energia nucleare ha giocato soltanto un piccolo ruolo in questo cambiamento. L’energia elettrica generata da fonti rigorosamente “verdi” – acqua, vento e solare – è aumentata del 20%, registrando la crescita più marcata nella produzione di energia solare, che è aumentata di un incredibile 175%. L’energia solare ha superato anche il nucleare in termini di nuova energia prodotta, fornendo 17,43 terawatt-ore in più lo scorso anno, rispetto ai 14,70 terawatt-ore da fonti nucleari. E, per il terzo anno consecutivo, la Cina ha prodotto più elettricità dal vento che da energia nucleare. In considerazione di tali condizioni, sembra di scarso valore la tesi secondo cui la Cina dovrà dipendere dalle centrali nucleari per fonti di energia elettrica senza carbonio.

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