Wind farm energy China environment Asian Development Bank/Flickr

Revolusi Energi Hijau di Tiongkok

SYDNEY – Tiongkok memperoleh sebagian besar listriknya melalui pembakaran bahan bakar fosil, sama halnya dengan negara-negara lain yang ekonominya sedang berkembang sejak masa Revolusi Industri. Namun penekanan pada satu fakta ini saja dikhawatirkan dapat mengabaikan trend penting dan patut diperhatikan. Sistem pembangkit tenaga listrik di Tiongkok beralih menjadi sistem yang ramah lingkungan dan pergeseran ini terjadi lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan negara lain yang memiliki sistem dengan skala yang serupa.

Trend ini dapat diamati dalam tiga bidang. Pertama, produksi listrik. Berdasarkan data yang dipublikasikan oleh Dewan Listrik Cina (China Electricity Council), jumlah energi yang dihasilkan dari bahan bakar fosil pada tahun 2014 di Tiongkok secara year on year berkurang 0,7% dan ini merupakan penurunan pertama selama beberapa waktu. Sementara itu produksi energi yang berasal dari sumber energi bahan bakar non-fosil meningkat 19%.

Luar biasanya, kontribusi tenaga nuklir dalam perubahan ini relatif rendah. Listrik yang dihasilkan oleh sumber energi yang benar-benar ramah lingkungan – tenaga air, angin, dan surya – meningkat 20%, sementara pertumbuhan terbesar terjadi pada pembangkit listrik tenaga surya, yang melonjak sebesar 175%. Tenaga surya juga melampaui nuklir dalam hal produksi energi baru, menghasilkan tambahan 17,43 terawatt-jam tahun lalu, dibandingkan dengan 14,70 terawatt-jam dari tenaga nuklir. Selain itu, tahun ketiga ini secara berturut-turut, Tiongkok menghasilkan lebih banyak listrik dari tenaga angin dibandingkan dengan nuklir. Dengan demikian, argumen bahwa Tiongkok akan lebih bergantung pada pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir sebagai sumber energi non-karbon untuk menghasilkan listriknya nampaknya kurang beralasan.

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