Wind farm energy China environment Asian Development Bank/Flickr

Energie : la révolution verte de la Chine

SYDNEY – En Chine la plus grande partie de l'électricité provient de centrales à charbon, comme cela a été le cas pour toutes les puissances économiques émergentes depuis la Révolution industrielle. Mais à ne considérer que ce paramètre, on risque de passer à coté d'un changement considérable qui a lieu actuellement. Le système de production d'électricité de la Chine devient de plus en plus vert - un véritable bouleversement, du jamais vu.

Cette révolution se manifeste tout azimuts. Selon le China Electricity Council, la part des énergies vertes dans la production d'électricité a fait un bond de 19% entre 2013 et 2014, tandis que celle des énergies fossiles a diminué de 0,7% - la première baisse de l'Histoire récente.

L'énergie nucléaire n'a pas joué grand rôle dans cette évolution. La production d'électricité à partir de sources d'énergie renouvelable (l'eau, le vent et le soleil) a augmenté de 20%. Celle provenant de l'énergie solaire a été multipliée par 1,75 ! L'année dernière sa croissance a dépassé celle d'origine nucléaire (17,43 terawatts-heures contre 14,70 terawatts-heures). Et pour la troisième année consécutive, les éoliennes ont produit davantage d'électricité que les centrales nucléaires. Aussi l'idée selon laquelle, hormis les centrales à charbon, la Chine va dépendre du nucléaire n'est pas fondée.

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