china rural village Zhang Peng/LightRocket/Getty Images

La Fine della Povertà in Cina?

PECHINO – Uno dei dati statistici più citati sulla Cina potrebbe essere il numero dei Cinesi sottratti alla povertà nel corso degli ultimi 35 anni. Oltre 800 milioni, un numero enorme – ed un’impresa straordinaria. In effetti, nessun altro paese ha raggiunto un tale livello di riduzione della povertà in un periodo così breve. Ma che dire dei milioni di Cinesi che sono rimasti indietro?

Il governo cinese è impegnato a svolgere fino in fondo il compito, con l’obiettivo di ridurre la povertà rurale sostanzialmente a zero entro il 2020. Le autorità si sono assunte per la prima volta tale impegno presso le Nazioni Unite nel 2015, e lo hanno ribadito nelle successive sedi ufficiali. Ma l’adempimento di quella promessa – che oggi significherebbe l’incremento del benessere di circa 45 milioni di persone, più o meno equivalenti a tutta la popolazione del Sudan – comporterà costi significativi.

La riduzione della povertà, come molte imprese importanti, è soggetta alla legge dei rendimenti decrescenti: più si fa qualcosa, meno produttivi diventano gli sforzi compiuti. Pensate alla carica di un orologio: più si carica, più la resistenza si accumula nel molla, e maggiore energia serve per spostare l’asse alla stessa distanza.

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