china rural village Zhang Peng/LightRocket/Getty Images

Das Ende der Armut in China?

PEKING – Eine der am meisten zitierten Statistiken über China ist wohl die Anzahl der Chinesen, die in den letzten 35 Jahren aus der Armut befreit werden konnten. Es sind über 800 Millionen, was eine enorme Menge ist – und eine außerordentliche Leistung. Tatsächlich gibt es kein anderes Land, das so viel Armut in so kurzer Zeit beenden konnte. Aber was ist mit den vielen Millionen Chinesen, die immer noch arm sind?

Die chinesische Regierung hat sich verpflichtet, diese Aufgabe zu Ende zu führen. Ihr Ziel ist es, die Armut im ländlichen Raum bis 2020 vollständig auszurotten. Dies wurde erstmals 2015 vor den Vereinten Nationen angekündigt und dann nach und nach weiter präzisiert. Aber dieses Versprechen – das bedeuten würde, das Leben von etwa 45 Millionen Menschen zu verbessern, was etwa der Bevölkerung des Sudans entspricht – hat seinen Preis.

Die Reduzierung von Armut unterliegt wie so viele andere Projekte dem Gesetz des abnehmenden Grenzertrags: Je weiter man dabei kommt, desto weniger produktiv werden die entsprechenden Bemühungen. Dies können wir damit vergleichen, eine Uhr aufzuziehen: Je stärker man sie aufzieht, desto mehr Widerstand muss man überwinden und desto mehr Energie braucht man für eine weitere Umdrehung.

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