china rural village Zhang Peng/LightRocket/Getty Images

Konec chudoby v Číně?

PEKING – Jedním z nejčastěji citovaných statistických údajů týkajících se Číny je zřejmě počet Číňanů, které se v posledních 35 letech podařilo pozvednout z chudoby. Jedná se o víc než 800 milionů osob, tedy obrovský počet – a mimořádný úspěch. Žádná jiná země v tak krátkém čase nedosáhla takového snížení úrovně chudoby. Co ale miliony Číňanů, kteří nadále zůstávají pod čarou?

Čínská vláda je odhodlaná úkol dokončit; jejím cílem je snížit venkovskou chudobu v zásadě na nulu do roku 2020. Čínské orgány se takto poprvé zavázaly na půdě OSN v roce 2015 a při dalších oficiálních příležitostech závazek zopakovaly. Splnění slibu – dnes by znamenalo zlepšit blahobyt asi 45 milionů lidí, což je zhruba ekvivalent celé populace Súdánu – si však vyžádá podstatné výdaje.

Omezování chudoby podléhá podobně jako tolik důležitých snah zákonitosti ubývající návratnosti: čím víc se něčemu věnujete, tím méně je vaše úsilí produktivní. Je to jako natahovat hodinky: čím víc natáčíte, tím větší odpor vzniká v hnacím peru a tím víc energie potřebujete k otočení natahovací hřídelky o tutéž vzdálenost.

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