La Chine en mouvement

PEKIN – Le débat est clos. Après avoir évalué différentes options pendant six ans, la Chine est aujourd’hui déterminée à mettre en place une nouvelle stratégie de croissance. Telle est du moins la conclusion à laquelle je suis parvenu à l’issue du Forum de Développement de la Chine, la plus importante plateforme de dialogue entre la Chine et le monde extérieur.

Il n’y a aucune surprise dans ce nouvel axe stratégique – un glissement structurel du modèle de croissance porté par les investissements et les exportations vers une économie poussée par la consommation intérieure et les services. Cette transformation est à la fois une question de nécessité et de conception.

Elle est nécessaire parce qu’il est peu probable que la faiblesse persistance de la croissance globale soit en mesure d’assurer une demande extérieure suffisamment solide pour les exportations chinoises, comme cela a été le cas à une époque. Mais elle est aussi essentielle parce que les nouveaux dirigeants de la Chine semblent déterminés à résorber un large éventail de déséquilibres internes qui menacent l’environnement, favorisent une inégalité des revenus déstabilisante, et exacerbent les disparités régionales.

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