Nanjing road Shanghai L1mey/Flickr

La sobredosis de crédito de China

SHANGHÁI – Los días del crecimiento económico de dos dígitos en China terminaron. De hecho, se predice que la tasa de crecimiento anual, que viene rondando un 7,5% aproximadamente desde 2012, caerá a 7% este año -y probablemente baje aún más-. Esta es la "nueva normalidad" de China, caracterizada, según las autoridades chinas, por un crecimiento "de velocidad media a alta" (en lugar de velocidad alta). Pero tal vez incluso esto sea optimista.

En los dos últimos años, el crédito creció casi dos veces más rápido que el PIB, y el financiamiento social total creció aún a pasos más acelerados. Sin embargo, el crecimiento del PIB se desaceleró considerablemente -de un promedio anual del 10,2% en 2002-2011- lo que sugiere que China puede estar acercándose a un sendero de crecimiento de velocidad mediana a baja.

Una posible explicación para la divergencia entre el crecimiento del crédito y del PIB es que el crecimiento potencial ya cayó al 7%. Pero esa marcada caída del crecimiento potencial normalmente implica un freno poderoso, en forma de una sacudida externa o ajustes internos importantes. En circunstancias normales, la tasa de crecimiento potencial de una economía se ajusta de manera natural y gradual, conforme progresa el cambio estructural.

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