China town San Fransisco Loic Lagarde/Flickr

中国的软实力制约

美国剑桥—中国一直在竭力增强其在不使用武力和强制手段的情况下影响其他国家的能力。2007年,时任国家主席胡锦涛告诫中共,中国需要提升软实力;现任国家主席习近平在去年又重申了这一点。他们知道,对于中国这样的国家,经济和军事实力的增长有可能让邻国陷入恐慌,促使它们结成制衡联盟,因此,明智的战略必须包括让中国看起来不那么可怕的措施。但中国的软实力野心仍面临着重大障碍。

诚然,中国的努力已经形成了一些影响。中国广延各国成为其亚洲基础设施投资银行成员国,并在国事访问中给予各国数十亿美元的援助,这让一些观察家担心,在软实力方面,中国实际上可能已经领先美国等其他国家一头。比如,美国“中国通”沈大伟(David Shambaugh)估算中国每年在“对外宣传”中花费大约100亿美元。相反,美国去年公共外交支出仅为6.66亿美元。

但中国在魅力攻势上所花费的数十亿美元获得的回报极其有限。北美、欧洲、印度和日本的民调显示,对中国影响力的观点呈现出显著的负面态度。在拉美和非洲,中国的形象更加正面——中国在这些地区没有领土纠纷,人权问题也常常不属于公共日程的重点。但即使在这些地区的许多国家,中国的行为——如进口劳动力从事基础设施工程——也不受欢迎。

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