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La stratégie Marco Polo de Xi Jinping

CAMBRIDGE – Le mois dernier, le président chinois Xi Jinping a présidé un sommet savamment orchestré, intitulé « Belt and Road », à Pékin. L'événement de deux jours a attiré 29 chefs d'Etat, y compris le Russe Vladimir Putin, et 1200 délégués de plus de 100 pays. Xi a qualifié la Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) de « projet du siècle ». Les 65 pays concernés représentent les deux tiers de la masse terrestre du monde et comptent environ quatre milliards et demi de personnes.

Annoncé en 2013, le plan de Xi destiné à favoriser une plus grande intégration de l'Eurasie grâce à un billion de dollars d'investissements dans les infrastructures reliant la Chine à l'Europe, avec des extensions vers l'Asie du Sud-Est et de l'Est, a été appelé le nouveau Plan Marshall de la Chine, ou encore sa proposition de stratégie ambitieuse. Certains observateurs ont également considéré que le sommet faisait partie des efforts de Xi pour combler le vide laissé par la décision de Donald Trump d’abandonner l'accord commercial du Partenariat Trans-Pacifique initié par Barack Obama.

L’initiative ambitieuse de la Chine fournirait des autoroutes, des voies ferrées, des pipelines, des ports et des centrales électriques bien nécessaires dans les pays pauvres. Elle encouragerait également les entreprises chinoises à accroître leurs investissements dans les ports et les chemins de fer européens. La composante « ceinture » de la BRI comprendrait un vaste réseau d’autoroutes et de liaisons ferroviaires à travers l'Asie centrale, tandis que la composante « route » fait référence à une série de routes maritimes et de ports entre l'Asie et l'Europe.

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