Xi Jinping and Narendra Modi Lan Hongguang/ZumaPress

China: un modelo de desarrollo frágil

NUEVA DELHI – Tras independizarse de Gran Bretaña en 1947, la India pasó a ser algo así como un ejemplo de las virtudes de la democracia; en marcado contraste con China, que en 1949 se convirtió en una dictadura comunista. Hasta los setenta, solía decirse que aunque los dos países sufrían pobreza extrema, subdesarrollo y enfermedades, el modelo indio era superior, porque su pueblo era libre de elegir a sus gobernantes.

Pero el auge económico chino puso de moda el contraargumento de que un sistema político represivo puede ser más favorable al desarrollo. Sin embargo y a pesar del espectacular desempeño reciente de China, es muy posible que el modelo indio resulte mejor en el largo plazo.

El giro discursivo se dio después de 1978, cuando el ascenso de la economía china dejó a la India rezagada; muchos concluyeron entonces que la caótica democracia india era un obstáculo para su pueblo. Al fin y al cabo, si el gobierno chino quiere trazar una nueva autopista de seis carriles, puede pasar la topadora a tantas aldeas como haga falta. En India, un proyecto de ensanchar una ruta de dos carriles puede causar protestas populares y quedar trabado por años en los tribunales.

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