Xi Jinping and Narendra Modi Lan Hongguang/ZumaPress

الصين ونموذج التنمية الهش

نيودلهي ــ بعد حصولها على الاستقلال عن بريطانيا عام 1947، كانت الهند بمثابة الممثل الأفضل لفضائل الديمقراطية ــ في تناقض صارخ مع الصين، التي تحولت إلى دكتاتورية شيوعية في عام 1949. وحتى سبعينيات القرن العشرين، كان كثيرون يزعمون أنه برغم معاناة البلدين من الفقر المدقع، والتخلف، والمرض، فإن نموذج الهند كان متفوقا، لأن شعب الهند كان حراً في اختيار حكامه.

ولكن مع الطفرة الاقتصادية التي شهدتها الصين، اكتسبت الحجة المضادة ــ التي تزعم أن النظام السياسي القمعي أكثر ملاءمة للتنمية ــ رواجاً ملموسا. ولكن برغم أن أداء الصين مؤخراً كان مذهلا، فإن نموذج الهند ربما يصمد بشكل أفضل في الأمد البعيد.

لقد تغيرت المناظرة بعد عام 1978، عندما تفوقت الصين على الهند اقتصاديا، الأمر الذي دفع كثيرين إلى استنتاج مفاده أن ديمقراطية الهند الفوضوية كانت سبباً في إعاقة أبناء شعبها. فإذا رغب زعماء الصين في بناء طريق سريع من ست حارات، فبوسعهم أن يهدموا أي عدد من القرى لتحقيق غايتهم. أما في الهند فإن توسيع طريق من حارتين من الممكن أن يستفز احتجاجات شعبية ويظل الأمر عالقاً في المحاكم لسنوات.

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