Liu Zhijun china railway minister Fan Rujun/ZumaPress

أهو الكسب غير المشروع أو النمو في الصين؟

بكين ــ إن الحملة التي يقودها الرئيس الصيني شي جين بينج ضد الفساد، والتي أسقطت بالفعل العديد من كبار "النمور" في الحكومة، وُصِفَت على نطاق واسع بأنها عنصر أساسي في الإصلاحات البنيوية العميقة التي تحتاج إليها الصين إذا كانت راغبة في بناء اقتصاد أكثر استدامة وشمولاً واعتماداً على السوق. ولكن هناك مخاوف من أن يؤدي استئصال الفساد، في بلد حيث يلعب المسؤولون الحكوميون دوراً كبيراً في تعزيز النمو الاقتصادي، إلى تقويض الازدهار.

وقد استشهد البعض بالمشاق التي تواجهها في الآونة الأخيرة الفنادق والمطاعم الفاخرة (والمدعومة في الصين إلى حد كبير بالإنفاق الحكومي) كدليل على أن الحملة المناهضة للفساد تعمل على تثبيط النشاط المعزز للنمو. ولكن المرجح أن يكون هذا الانخفاض مؤقتاً مع ظهور عملاء جدد بعد فترة من التكيف.

والتخوف الأكثر جدية هو ما إذا كانت الجهود الرامية إلى اجتثاث الفساد قد تضعف الحافز لدى المسؤولين الحكوميين لتعزيز النمو. ذلك أن مستويات النمو العالية تترجم إلى مصدر كبير للريع، والذي يمكن توزيعه من خلال ممارسات الفساد على المسؤولين أنفسهم، فضلاً عن أصدقائهم ومحاسيبهم. والمنطق يقول إن القضاء على هذه الممارسات يعني عجز المسؤولين عن جني مكافآت كبيرة من النمو الاقتصادي ــ وبالتالي فإنهم يصبحون أقل حماساً لتشجيع النمو.

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