Le due economie dell’innovazione

HONG KONG – L’innovazione tecnologica guida lo sviluppo economico da 250 anni. Ma le varie tipologie di innovazione sono molto diverse per chi è alla frontiera rispetto a chi segue tentando di recuperare.

Alla frontiera l’innovazione inizia con la scoperta e culmina nella speculazione. Dalla ricerca scientifica all’identificazione di applicazioni commerciali di nuove tecnologie, il progresso è stato raggiunto tramite tentativi ed errori. Le tecnologie strategiche che hanno ripetutamente trasformato l’economia di mercato – dalle ferrovie a Internet – hanno richiesto la costruzione di reti il cui valore nell’uso non poteva essere noto al momento del loro primo impiego.

Di conseguenza, l’innovazione alla frontiera dipende dalle fonti di finanziamento che sono separate dal timore per il valore economico; di conseguenza, non si può ridurre all’allocazione ottimale di risorse. La comune funzione di produzione di economia neoclassica offre una lente pericolosamente fuorviante attraverso la quale interpretare i processi di innovazione di frontiera.

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