Die beiden Innovationsökonomien

HONGKONG: Seit 250 Jahren treiben technologische Innovationen die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung voran. Doch die Innovationsökonomie ist für jene an vorderster Front eine ganz andere als für jene, die ihnen folgen und sich um Anschluss bemühen.

Für die Vorreiter beginnt die Innovationsökonomie mit einer Entdeckung und gipfelt in der Spekulation. Von der wissenschaftlichen Forschung bis zu gewerblichen Anwendung neuer Technologien werden Fortschritte nach dem Prinzip von Versuch und Irrtum erzielt. Jene strategischen Technologien, die die Marktwirtschaft jeweils völlig verwandelt haben – von den Eisenbahnen bis hin zum Internet – erforderten den Aufbau von Netzwerken, deren Nutzwert bei ihrer Ersteinrichtung nicht vorhersehbar war.

Infolgedessen sind die Vorreiter bei ihren Innovationen von Finanzierungsquellen abhängig, die von der Sorge über den wirtschaftlichen Wert abgekoppelt sind; sie lassen sich daher nicht auf die optimale Zuweisung von Ressourcen reduzieren. Die traditionelle Produktionsfunktion der neoklassischen Ökonomie ist eine gefährlich in die Irre führende Linse zur Interpretation der Prozesse im Grenzland der Innovation.

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