两种创新经济

香港—250年来,技术创新推动了经济发展。但对于创新先锋和创新追随和赶超者来说,创新经济学是大不相同的。

对创新先锋来说,创新经济始于发现,极于投机。从科学研究到新技术的商业应用的认识,进步一直是在试错中实现的。一再改变市场经济的战略性技术——从铁路到互联网——需要网络建设,而在首次建成之前,网络的价值无法为人所知。

结果,前沿创新取决于资金来源,而与经济价值考虑无甚关联;因此,不能把它同最优资源配置问题等量齐观。在解释前沿创新过程方面,新古典经济学的常规生产函数起到了危险的误导作用。

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