China y el desenlace afgano

BEIJING – Desde que el Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, decidió empezar a retirar las tropas americanas del Afganistán, el interés mundial por el papel que China desempeñará –si es que desempeña alguno– en la determinación del futuro de ese país asolado por la guerra ha aumentado espectacularmente. Al fin y al cabo, China no es un simple vecino del Afganistán, sino la potencia en ascenso más importante del mundo, una “potencia mundial”, en realidad, como Mike Mullen, Jefe del Estado Mayor Conjunto de los EE.UU., proclamó en Beijing el pasado mes de junio.

Si China se muestra dispuesta a contribuir a apuntalar el gobierno del Pesidente Hamid Karzai, no procurará obtener ventaja inmediata alguna de la retirada de las fuerzas de los EE.UU, pero, a pesar de los miles de millones de dólares que China ha invertido en el desarrollo de los recursos naturales del Afganistán, resulta difícil verla emprender una política de intervención más amplia y activa en ese país.

Una razón por la que China se muestra cautelosa a la hora de aceptar un papel mayor en el Afganistán, pese a la indudable importancia de este país para la estabilidad regional, es la de que la guerra de los EE.UU. en él ha sido polémica en China desde el comienzo. Los nacionalistas chinos creen que los EE.UU. emprendieron la guerra en parte para situar a su ejército cerca de una de las fronteras más delicadas de China. Además, para abastecer a sus fuerzas armadas, los EE.UU. intensificaron su presencia militar en el Asia central alquilando la base aérea de Manas en Kirguistán, país que también comparte una frontera con China.

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